Bedouin also meant Beduin, Arabic Badawi and many Badw, Arabic speaking roaming people of the Middle East deserts especially of North Africa the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Israel, Iraq, Syria, and Jordan. Bedouin means “desert people.”
Maximum Bedouins are animal keepers who move from one place to another into the desert during the rainy winter season and move back to the cultivated land in the summer months. Bedouin families usually categorized according to the animal species that are the basis of their livelihood. Camel Wanderers occupied vast areas and organized into large tribes in the Sahara, Syrian, and Arabian deserts. Sheep and goat Wanderers have smaller arrays, staying mainly near the cultured regions of Jordan, Syria, and Iraq. In history, many Bedouin groups also searched trade caravans and villages at the borders of settled areas. Mostly Bedouin adopt the modern urban, active lifestyle with its associated attractions of material success.
Bedouins Societies and Sheikh
In Bedouin society, the head of the family, and of each successively larger social unit making up the tribal structure, is called Sheikh. The Sheikh gets assistance by an informal or formal tribal council of male elders. In most of the Bedouin communities, the leaders picked for their intelligence and judgment. In others community’s leadership passes from father to eldest son.
The development of modern states in the Middle East and the allowance of their authority into ungovernable regions significantly affected the Bedouin’s traditional behaviors of life. In World War I, Bedouin societies had to submit to the control of the governments of the countries in which their drifting areas lay. In several instances Bedouins were combined into military and police forces, taking advantage of their mobility and adaptation to severe environments. Some governments have taken in consideration about the Bedouins Culture like in Dubai there is a designated Desert area for Bedouins and people are strictly forbidden to take their vehicles for Desert Safari in such area of Dubai. However, some Bedouins offer Camel Safari tours that help them make extra income.
Bedouins Men and Women Fashion
In Bedouins, the core dress of women is Tob or Thobe. The dress is usually in dark blue with light blue beads and decorated. Unmarried women clothes include a bag like Hata. Married women double the square into a band and wear it around the head. Mostly women wear jewelry that symbolizes the family wealth but also has protective qualities. Jewelry includes necklaces, rings, anklets, and bracelets. Bracelets and anklets are often hollow a filled with stones to make noise.
Similarly, men, the basic dress is a Tob or Thobe of white cotton. The collar on the Tob differs by region. In somewhere it is round a button and tassel. The Tob has large triangular sleeves which are knotted back with a cord. Most Bedouin’s men headwear is a Kufiya with an Igal of camel wool. The Igal usually decorated with metallic threads.
In Bedouin families, women, men, and children decorate their eyes with kohl as Egyptians did. Mostly Bedouin women have formal facial tattoos and henna designs on their hands. Young Bedouin girls begin binding coins in their hair before their front teeth have full-grown.
Bedouins do not take many baths because of short supply of water. Before prayers, they wash with sand rather than limited water. They wash their hair with powdered leaves of the Cider tree. The leaves are dried and powdered and mixed with water to make a paste.
Language and Religion
Mostly people of Bedouins are Sunni Muslims and usually observe Muslim holidays. Bedouin societies observe the fast of Ramadan, perform the obligatory prayers, and celebrate the two major Islamic holidays called Eid ul Fitar and Eid ul Azha. Preparations are usually made with religious experts in inactive communities to provide religious services and education for Bedouin societies. A few Bedouin communities in Jordan have stayed Christian. Many of them believe in spirits called Jinn and evil and monsters. They target people who are traveling alone in the desert.
Marriages and Dating
In Bedouins, marriages have been between the relatives allowed by Muslim law. Cousin marriages are common at their, ideally between a man and his father’s brother’s daughter. Father’s brother’s son has first dibs on his female cousin. The female cousin has right to refuse to marry her father’s brother’s son; she may not marry anyone else without his permission first. Although weddings with first cousins are wanted, most marriages are between second and third cousins.